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Uzbekistan

The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated in the central part of Central Asia between two rivers: the Amudarya and Syrdarya. The Turan Lowland lies to the northwest, and the Tien-Shan and Pamir-Alay mountain ridges are located in the southeast of the territory. The Kyzyl-KumDesert defines the Northern part of the country. Uzbekistan borders Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan.

Republic of Uzbekistan

Formal name: The Republic of Uzbekistan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total 447.400 km2: land: 425.400 km2, water: 22,000 km2
Population: 26, 6 million
Capital: Tashkent

Government - Presidential republic
President - Islam Karimov
Prime Minister - Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Independence - from the Soviet Union
Declared - 1 September 1991
Recognized - 8 December 1991
Language Official language - Uzbek, widely used: Russian, Tajik, Kara kalpak, also English, which is getting popular among youth generation.
Ethnic groups - 80.0% Uzbek, 5.5% Russian, 5.0%-5.5% Tajik, 3.0% Kazakh, 2.5% Karakalpak, 1.5% Tatar,2.5% Others.
National currency: Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) (UZS).
Structure: Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakistan, 12 provinces, 226 cities and districts.
Religion: Islam - 88%, Christian - 9%
Time: GMT + 05:00
Electric power: 220 V AC, 50 amp; standard two-pin plug socket
Domain zone:.uz
International dialing code: +998

The National Flag of Republic of Uzbekistan

The national flag was approved by the Extraordinary 8th Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan on November 18, 1991. The flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of blue, white and green stripes, separated by two narrow red stripes. A crescent and three rows of twelve stars are situated on the left side of the upper blue stripe.
The blue color symbolizes the sky and water as the principle sources of life. The National flag of Amir Timur was also blue in color. The white stripe is the traditional symbol of peace and of moral and spiritual purity. The green stripe symbolizes nature, the new epoch and abundance in the countries where the majority of the population is Islamic. Besides that, this is in harmony with the modern movement of Greenpeace, which protects nature. The red separating stripes symbolize the current of vital energy in any living body and also connect our pure and noble thoughts with the sky and the earth.
The crescent of the new moon, along with its traditional historical symbolism, is at the same time a symbol of the birth of republic's independence. The symbolism of twelve stars is connected historically with the solar calendar year, which begins from Navruz and embodies the twelve principles laying in the foundation of state management.

The National Emblem of Uzbekistan

The state emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved by the 10th Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan on July 2, 1992. The state emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan actually absorbed the centuries-old experiences of the Uzbek people. It reflects a blossoming valley and a shining sun. The right side of the valley is set off with wheat and to the left with a cotton plant garland.
The octagonal star, symbolizing the unity of the Republic, crowns the state emblem. The holy Muslim symbols of the crescent and the star are placed inside the star. In the center of the emblem there is the holy bird, Khoum, with its spread wings symbolizing magnanimity, nobility and service. These symbols reflect the long way of the Uzbek people towards peace, stability, happiness, wealth and prosperity. A little frame with the inscription "Uzbekistan" is placed in the lower part of the state emblem.

Holidays in Uzbekistan

January 1 - New Year Holiday
January 14 - Day of Defenders of the Motherland
March 8 - International Women's Day
March 21 - Navroz (Turkic New Year)
May 9 - Memorial/Remembrance Day
September 1 - Independence Day
October 1 - Teacher's Day
December 8 - Constitution Day

Variable date

End of Ramazon Ramazon Hayit Eid al-Fitr
70 days later Qurbon Hayit Eid al-Adha

Major cities include the capital Tashkent, Samarqand, Bukhara and Khiva. Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires, the region was conquered in the early 16th century by Uzbek nomads, who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. Most of Uzbekistan's population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language, one of the families of Turkic languages.
Uzbekistan was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century and in 1924 became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). It has been an independent republic since December 1991.

History

The first people known to have occupied Central Asia were Iranian nomads who arrived from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan sometime in the first millennium BC. These nomads, who spoke Iranian dialects, settled in Central Asia and began to build an extensive irrigation system along the rivers of the region. At this time, cities such as Bukhoro (Bukhara) and Samarqand (Samarkand) began to appear as centers of government and culture. By the 5th century BC, the Bactrian, Soghdian, and Tokharian states dominated the region. As China began to develop its silk trade with the West, Iranian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centers of trade. Using an extensive network of cities and settlements in the province of Mawarannahr (a name given the region after the Arab conquest) in Uzbekistan and farther east in what is today China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Soghdian intermediaries became the wealthiest of these Iranian merchants. Because of this trade on what became known as the Silk Route, Bukhoro and Samarqand eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Mawarannahr was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.
Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Bactria in 327 BC, marrying Roxana, daughter of a local Bactrian chieftain. The conquest was supposedly of little help to Alexander as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region that became the northern part of Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by Iranian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Empires. The Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan during the 13th century would bring about a dramatic change to the region. The brutal conquest and widespread genocide characteristic of the Mongols almost entirely exterminated the indigenous Indo-Iranian (Scythian) people of the region. Their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian-Turkic peoples who settled the region thereafter.
Following the death of Chinggis Khan in 1227, his empire was divided among his four sons and his family members. Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Mawarannahr stayed in the hands of direct descendants of Chaghatai, the second son of Chinggis. Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained strong and united. In the early fourteenth century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts, the Chaghatai territory also was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence. One tribal chieftain, Timur (Tamerlane), emerged from these struggles in the 1380s as the dominant force in Mawarannahr. Although he was not a descendant of Chinggis, Timur became the de facto ruler of Mawarannahr and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran, Asia Minor, and the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea. He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in 1405.
Timur initiated the last flowering of Mawarannahr by gathering in his capital, Samarqand, numerous artisans and scholars from the lands he had conquered. By supporting such people, Timur imbued his empire with a very rich culture. During Timur's reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction projects were undertaken in Samarqand and other population centres. Timur also patronized scientists and artists; his grandson Ulugh Beg was one of the world's first great astronomers. It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkish, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Mawarannahr—although the Timurids also patronized writing in Persian. Until then only Persian had been used in the region. The greatest Chaghataid writer, Ali Shir Nava'i, was active in the city of Herat, now in northwestern Afghanistan, in the second half of the fifteenth century.
The Timurid state quickly broke into two halves after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea. In 1501 the Uzbeks began a wholesale invasion of Mawarannahr.
In the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire began to expand and spread into Central Asia. The "Great Game" period is generally regarded as running from approximately 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, a second, less intensive phase followed. At the start of the nineteenth century, there were some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) separating British India and the outlying regions of Tsarist Russia. Much of the land in between was unmapped.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, Central Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia, and despite some early resistance to Bolsheviks, Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union. On 27 October 1924 the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. On 31 August 1991, Uzbekistan declared independence, marking 1 September as a national holiday.
The country is now the world's second-largest exporter of cotton and it is developing its mineral and petroleum reserves.

Geography

Uzbekistan is approximately the size of California and New Jersey added together and has an area of 447,400 square kilometers (172,700 sq mi). It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 5th largest by area and the 3rd largest by population.
Uzbekistan stretches 1,425 kilometers (885 mi) from west to east and 930 kilometers (578 mi) from north to south. Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north and northwest, Turkmenistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is not only one of the larger Central Asian states but also the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan also shares a short border (less than 150 km) with Afghanistan to the south.
The highest point in Uzbekistan is the Khazret Sultan, located at 4,643 meters (15,233 ft) above sea level, located in the southern part of the Gissar Range in Surkhandarya Province, on the border with Tajikistan, just north-west of Dushanbe (formerly called Peak of the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party).
The climate in the Republic of Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually (100–200 millimeters, or 3.9–7.9 inches). The average summer high temperature tends to be 40 °C (104 °F), while the average winter low temperature is around ?23 °C (?9 °F).

Provinces and districts

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (viloyatlar, singular viloyat, compound noun viloyati e.g., Toshkent viloyati, Samarqand viloyati, etc.), one autonomous republic (respublika, compound noun respublikasi e.g. Qaraqalpaqstan Avtonom Respublikasi, Karakalpakistan Autonomous Republic, etc.), and one independent city (shahar. compound noun shahri, e.g., Toshkent shahri). Names are given below in the Uzbek language, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist.

Distances between cities of Uzbekistan

 

Tash.

And.

Bukh.

Gul.

Djiz.

Karshi

Navai

Nam.

Nukus

Sam.

Ter.

Fer.

Urg.

Tashkent

 

447

616

118

203

558

509

432

1255

354

708

419

1119

Andijan

447

 

784

375

421

668

669

67

1342

516

892

73

1566

Bukhara

616

784

 

485

363

161

125

778

558

268

434

749

503

Gulistan

118

375

465

 

106

353

254

369

1027

201

557

340

1001

Djizakh

203

421

363

106

 

247

248

415

921

95

471

386

916

Karshi

558

668

161

353

247

 

241

662

719

152

273

663

664

Navai

509

669

125

354

248

241

 

663

383

153

477

634

610

Namangan

432

67

778

369

415

662

663

 

1336

510

886

85

1552

Nukus

1255

1342

558

1027

921

719

683

1336

 

826

992

1307

136

Samarkand

354

516

268

201

95

152

153

510

826

 

376

481

765

Termez

708

892

434

577

471

273

477

886

992

376

 

857

937

Fergana

419

73

749

340

386

633

634

85

1307

481

857

 

1538

Urgench

1119

1566

503

1001

916

664

610

1552

136

765

937

1538